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primer of Ornament and Design. 

H^D D68I6N, SeCOJ^D 

Xt seems advisable in this 
paper to consider the mak- 
ing of letters* I have chosen 
to take up that portion of the 
subject now, as in the papers 
which are to follow it will be 
necessary frequently to use let- 
tering with ornament; and in 
order that the descriptions may 
be kept simple and non-confus- 
ing, but slight reference will 
then be made to that portion of 
the design* Xt is hoped that 
the student will be able to gain 
a clear enough insight into let- 
tering in this paper to under- 
stand its use in those which are 
to follow* 

first, it should be understood 
that it is possible for the de- 
signer to introduce quite as 
much individuality into letter- 
ing as into anv other part of 
the drawing. One should, bow- 
ever, attain some knowledge of 
the forms and proportions of 
Roman and Gothic faces before 
trying to invent something new. 
Raving attained this knowledge, 
the work of application or in- 
vention becomes quite simple. 

following is a Roman alpha- 
bet. 6ven though it seems 
like drudgery to copy it de- 
liberately, it is valuable practice, 
first draw it by the aid of 
the guide lines or squares; next 
without the guide lines; then 
construct it into words. 
Creat each letter purely as an 
ornament; give to it a beautiful 
form. 6ach curve should be a 
line of beauty. 

H word should be a combi- 
nation of such ornaments, one 
part nicely balancing with an- 
other, thus forming a complete 

Cdbcti a letter is used in com- 
bination with another, its form 
is governed, to a great extent, 
not only by the letters which 
come next to it, but also by 
those which are perhaps at the 
other end of the word; in some 
cases by the letters in other 
words. Of quite as much im- 
portance as the letter is the 
white space which it surrounds 
or which occurs on either side 
of it. 

QHben using letters, the de- 
signer must first consider the 
character of letter appropriate 
to the work; next, the space to 
be devoted to same. Che letters 
should now be blocked in quite 
roughly. It is sometimes nec- 
essary to do this several times 
in order to get the letters prop- 
erly spaced, and to have the 
words come out even. 

Che style of lettering to be 
used depends largely upon the 
ornament with which it is to 
be combined and the space to be 
filled, and is suggested by the 
natural tastes, talents, or abil- 
ity of the designer. Che Roman 
letter is important in forming 
a groundwork on which to 
build, a point from which to 
think; it can readily be changed 
at the will of the designer, a 
few slight alterations giving it 
an entirely new face and one of 
distinct individuality, as will be 
noted in the word taken from 
a drawing by Walter Crane. 













H primer of Ornament and Design. 

Cbe letters marked "H" also 
snow the effects produced by 
slight alterations. 

Cbe words marked "C" sbow 
tbe effect of spacing. In tbe 
first case tbe letters are put 
together as tbey would come 

been moved a little from tbe €; 
tbe C bas again been condensed; 
tbe O moved furtber from tbe 
I, and tbe N fro™ tbe O. It 
will be noticed tbat tbe O ap- 
pears to be smaller tban tbe 
otber letters, although in real- 

^•5HAKe5P£AR€r A B C D E 



h i j k 1 m 
n o pqrst 
u vw x y zl 

Some Lettering from a Design by Obiter Crane, also a face of 
old style Roman type known as Caslon* 

were tbe Hue set in type, and 
each letter is of tbe same size 
as tbe letters shown in tbe 
alpbabet above. In tbe second 
line it will be noticed tbat tbe 
H bas been placed nearer tbe C; 
botb Cs have been condensed 
enough to narrow tbe wbite 
space between tbem; tbe ]N" bas 

ity it is not It is well to 
make all round letters a trifle 
larger tban tbe square letters— 
merely enough larger to bave 
tbem appear tbe same size. 

rrOCe.— Cbe letter S should be a trifle 
smaller at tbe top tban is bere sbown^^TCbe 
continuation of tbis paper containing a 
description of Ootbic Letters will appear 
in tbe 'January number. 

H few Hrt Fotcs. 

h fern hrc jsrocea^^ 

/PH competition worthy of at- 
tention is that announced by the 
Rational Board of Crade of 
Cycle ]Manuf acturers who offer 
two first prizes of $150, each, 
and two second prizes of $50, 
each, for the best designs for 
the front faces of two cata- 
logues to be issued in connection 
with the Cycle Shows of 1 807, 
to be held in Chicago and f(cw 
York respectively* Che judges 
are to be 6dward penf icld, 
6eorge (SQL peck, president Hrt 
Students League, and G. 6* 
Bartlctt, president Bartlett & 
Co* Details may be had from 
JVIr* 6. R. franks, 271 Broad- 
way, J^ew York, 

/JPCbc following designs are in 
demand every year, and offer 
splendid opportunities for the 
designer: covers for thanks- 
giving and Christmas fiarpcr's 
Oleekly; 6aster, Chanksgiving, 
and Christmas Rarpcr's Bazar; 
Gaster, fourth of ^uly, Cbanks- 
giving, and Christmas Rarper^ s 
Round Cable; Gaster, JVIidsutn- 
mer, and Christmas Scribner^s; 
JMidsummer and Christmas 
Century; Christmas Book- 
buyer, Good designs submitted 
to these publishers will find a 
ready sale. Che designs for 
Century and Scribner's should 
still retain the general arrange- 
ment and quite thesamelettering 
as is used in the regular issues* 

R* D. Russell & Son's ]Nkw publications* 

PICXCIR6S Of P60PL6. By Charles Dana Gibson. 

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POSC6R CHL6N0HR fOR 1897* Designed by edward penfield* 

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Imperial 3apan edition, numbered and signed by Mr* penfield* price, $2*00* 

Che above publications are for sale by all booksellers, or will be sent post-paid, to any 
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R. f>. RC18S6LL & SON, 33 Rose Street, fiem YORK.